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An introduction to Surah Al-Faatihah from Tafseer Ibn Katheer.

 

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Permission has been granted (to fight)…

 

أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ. الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لَهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا وَلَيَنْصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَنْصُرُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ

 

 

“Permission has been granted (to fight) to those who have been fought because they have been oppressed, and Allaah is All-Capable of aiding them. Those who have been expelled from their homes without right (for no reason) but that they say ‘Our Lord is Allaah’, and had Allaah not repelled some people with others then monasteries, churches, synagogues and Masaajid wherein the name of Allaah is mentioned abundantly, and Allaah will surely aid those who aid Him (i.e. His deen, Islaam), indeed Allaah is Powerful, Mighty.”Surah Al-Hajj, Aayah 39-40.

 

Commentary:

 

This was the first Aayah revealed concerning Jihaad, prior to this there was no Jihaad, and the Muslims had to bear patience with the tortures carried out by the kuffaar, for thirteen long years in Makkah, then once Rasoolullaah Sallallaahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam was forced to migrate to Madeenah this Aayah was revealed.

 

This aayah and the ones that followed it concerning Jihaad abrogated any and all laws of Makkah with regards to having patience in the face of harassment.
Examples of what was changed:

 

1: If muslims are fought they must fight back, while previously they had to endure it patiently.

 

2: If Rasoolullaah Sallallaahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam is insulted or mocked then the insulter is to be killed, while previously Rasoolullaah Sallallaahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam had to endure it.

 

3: If the kuffaar merely intend to attack the muslims then they must be fought, while previously it wasn’t allowed.

 

4: Islaam is taken to other lands via Jihaad, while previously it wasn’t allowed.

 

5: If a hand  span of Muslim land is invaded then the kuffaar must be fought, previously that  wasn’t the case.

 

And there are similar other cases too.

 

Lesson:
From this Aayah we learn the way that the world’s wrongs are rectified, i.e. through  Jihaad.
Many people try to gandhi-fy Islaam with their “Non-violence shall prevail!” opinions thinking that is the way forward.

 

But Allaah the  Most-Knowledgeable says that the way forward is Jihaad.

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The Meaning of The Pronoun “We” As Used in The Qur’aan

by Brother Yahya Adel Ibrahîm

It is a feature of literary style in Arabic that a person may refer to himself by the pronoun nahnu (we) for respect or glorification. He may also use the word ana (I), indicating one person, or the third person huwa (he). All three styles are used in the Qur’an, where Allaah addresses the Arabs in their own tongue. ( Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 4/143).

“Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted, sometimes refers to Himself in the singular, by name or by use of a pronoun, and sometimes by use of the plural, as in the phrase (interpretation of the meaning):‘Verily, We have given you a manifest victory” [al-Fath 48:1], and other similar phrases. But Allaah never refers to Himself by use of the dual, because the plural refers to the respect that He deserves, and may refer to His names and attributes, whereas the dual refers to a specific number (and nothing else), and He is far above that.”

( Al-‘Aqeedah al-Tadmuriyyah by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, p. 75).

These words, innaa (“Verily We”) and nahnu (“We”), and other forms of the plural, may be used by one person speaking on behalf of a group, or they may be used by one person for purposes of respect or glorification, as is done by some monarchs when they issue statements or decrees in which they say ” We have decided…” etc. [This is known in English as “The Royal We” – Translator]. In such cases, only one person is speaking but the plural is used for respect. The One Who is more deserving of respect than any other is Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted, so when He says in the Qur’an innaa (“Verily We”) and nahnu (“We”), it is for respect and glorification, not to indicate plurality of numbers. If an aayah of this type is causing confusion, it is essential to refer to the clear, unambiguous aayaat for clarification, and if a Christian, for example, insists on taking ayaat such as

“Verily, We: it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e., the Qur’an)”

[al-Hijr 15:9 – interpretation of the meaning] as proof of divine plurality, we may refute this claim by quoting such clear and unambiguous aayaat as (interpretation of the meanings):

“And your god is One God, there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful” [al-Baqarah 2:163]

And

“Say: He is Allaah, the One” [al-Ikhlaas 112:1]

and other aayaat which can only be interpreted in one way. Thus confusion will be dispelled for the one who is seeking the truth. Every time Allaah uses the plural to refe to Himself, it is based on the respect and honour that He deserves, and on the great number of His names and attributes, and on the great number of His troops and angels.

(Al-‘Aqeedah al-Tadmuriyyah by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, p. 109).

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Tafseer Jalaalayn – Surah Faatihah

Tafsir Jalaalayn must be the shortest tafsir there is, but it’s one of the best, if you do the whole tafsir from beginning to end then you’ll have a proper understanding of the qur’an.

I’m not going to translate this tafsir word for word, i’m going to translate it so that you can get the intended meaning, so certain parts i wont be translating like if it’s just the grammatical viewpoint of the ayah etc.

Note: the words that are in italics are the transliteration and the translation just beneath it, the tafsir will be the un-italic words.

So we’ll start off with surah fatihah.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

{ الحمد للَّهِ }

Al7amdulillahi

All praise is for Allah.

This is a sentence which is giving news, intending with it the praise of Allah, that Allah is the owner of all the praises of the creation, or that Allah is the most deserving of praise, and Allah is the only one worthy of worship.

{ رَبّ العالمين }

Rabbil 3aalameen

The lord of the worlds.

Meaning, the owner of all the creation, from man and jinn and angels and animals etc, and He is the knower of them all.

{ الرحمن الرحيم }

Ar Ra7manir Ra7eem

The most beneficent the most merciful.

The most merciful, meaning that Allah is most merciful to His creation.

{ مالك يَوْمِ الدين }

Maaliki yawmid deen

The owner of the day of judgement.

The day of reward (either good or bad) and that is the day of qiyamah, and Allah has specifically made mention of this because there is no master/owner (on that day) except Allah, as is said in another ayah “limanil mulkul yawm, lillahil waa7idil qahhaar” (for who is the ownership of that day, (it is) for Allah the One the most Powerful). And whoever reads “maaliki” (i.e. maaliki yawmid deen, in different qiraats it’s read different, in one qiraat it’s maliki yawmid deen) then the meaning is ‘the master of everything on the day of qiyamah’, and that He is described as such eternally, like the ayah “ghaafiridh dhambi” (the forgiver of sins)

{ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ }

Iyyaaka na3budu wa iyyaaka nasta3een

only You do we worship and only You do we seek aid from.

Meaning, we only worship You with tawheed and ask You for help etc.

{ اهدنا الصراط المستقيم }

Ihdinas siraatal mustaqeem

Guide us on the straight path.

Meaning, direct us to the straight path and put us upon it.

{ صِرَاطَ الذين أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ }

Siraatallazeena an3amta 3alayhim

The path of those whom You have favoured.

With guidance.

{ غَيْرِ المغضوب عَلَيْهِمْ }

Ghayril maghdhoobi 3alayhim

Not (the path of) those whom Your anger is upon.

i.e. the jews.

{ وَلاَ }

Wa laa (‘wa ladh dhaaleen’ when you join it)

And not.

Meaning, nor the path of.

{ الضالين }

Adh Dhaaleen

Those who are astray.

i.e. the christians.

And we learn from this that the guided ones are not the jews nor the christians.

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