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As for the Arkaan of Wudhu, they are four.

The first is: Washing the face once

It is based upon the Aayah (the one quoted in the previous lesson from Surah Maa’idah) { فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ }  “And wash your faces”

And a Mutlaq (general) command does not require repetition (i.e. does not require the face to be washed multiple times). The limits of the face has not been mentioned in the Dhaahiri Riwaayah (as mentioned previously, it refers to Imaam Muhammad Rahimahullaah), but it has been mentioned (in another kitaab, of Imaam Abu Yusuf Rahimahullah) that the (limits of the) face is from the place where the hair (normally*) starts, until the bottom of the chin, and from one ear to the other, and this definition is correct, because it is defining a thing with what the linguistics of the word points out to, because “wajh” (face) is the name given to that which faces people, or what is normally faced towards, and Muwaajahah (facing face to face) also falls under this definition.

Hence it is Waajib to wash it (the face) excluding where the hair grows from (like eyebrows), because according to the general Ulamaa it is not Waajib to wash what is under the hair, but Imaam Abu Abdullaah Al-Balkhi Rahimahullaah says: It must be washed. And Imaam Shaafi’i Rahimahullaah says: If the hair is thick then washing beneath it falls away, but if it’s thin (normal) then it must be washed. (the fatwah is that it must be washed, as it will be mentioned later on Inshaa Allaah)

*Note: The face starts from the place where the hair normally starts from, that does not mean if a person is balding then he must wash right up till where his hair starts.

The (reasoning for the) view of Imaam Abu Abdullaah Rahimahullaah is that whatever is under the hair remains under the confines of the face, hence why washing it will not fall away.

And the reasoning of Imaam Shaafi’i Rahimahullaah is that the falling away (of washing) is because of the difficulty involved, and there is only difficulty in thick hair, not in thin hair.

As for us, we say that the compulsory thing is washing the face, and it’s difficult to call what is beneath the hair as the face, because it is not something that is faced towards, so it is not Waajib to wash it.

So the answer is taken from what Imaam Abu Abdullaah Rahimahullaah said, and what Imaam Shaafi’i Rahimahullaah said as well, because the falling away of the washing of the thick hair is not because of difficulty, but (it falls away) because of it not being part of the face by hair covering it, and that is found is thin hair as well.

And based upon all this Ikhtilaaf (difference of opinions) we say that what is beneath the moustache and eyebrows must be washed.

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The first Rukn:

Wudhu is the name given to Ghasl (washing) and Masa7 (wiping), based upon the Aayah:

{ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إذَا قُمْتُمْ إلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ ، وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إلَى الْمَرَافِقِ ، وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ ، وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنْ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمْ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَكِنْ يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ }

O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.

Surah Al-Maaidah Aayah 6

Allah commanded us with washing the three limbs (face, arms, feet) and wiping the head.

So it is necessary to know the meaning of “Ghasl” and “Masa7”.

So Ghasl is pouring water upon the place (limb), and Masa7 is rubbing.

So much so that if a person washed the limbs of wudhu, but the water did not flow, so that its usage resembled oil (like if you have something oily/greasy rubbed on your skin) , it (his wudhu) would not be valid, according to the Dhaahiri Riwaayah (the dhaahiri riwaayah refers to Imaam Muhammad Rahimahullaah).

But it’s reported from Imaam Abu Yusuf that it (his wudhu) is valid.

And upon this they (the ulamaa) have said: If a person made wudhu with ice, and nothing dripped from it, then it’s not permissable/valid, but if two or three drops dripped then it will be valid because “flowing” (water) has been found”.

And the Faqeeh Abu Ja’far Al-Hinduwaaniyy Rahimahullaah was asked concerning making wudhu with ice and he said: That is wiping, not washing, but if he causes it to flow then it will be permissable.

And it’s narrated that Khalaf bin Ayyoob Rahimahullaah said: It is necessary for the person making wudhu in winter to rub his limbs (with water) so that it resembles a grease (in other words just rub yourself with water first), then he will pour water over those limbs, because water does not flow properly on the limbs in winter (due to the cold).

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Kitaabut Tahaarah – The book of Purity

In reality this section consists of only two explanations, 1: The explanation of Tahaarah. 2: The explanation of its types.

As for the explanation of tahaarah, the linguistic meaning is “purity/cleanliness”, and the shari’ meaning is purifying and cleansing and purification, (the explanation goes on, it’s just a technical explanation but i don’t want to translate it wrongly so we’ll just skip it)

As for the explanation of its types, Tahaarah itself is of two types:

1: Purification from 7adath

And that’s known as “Tahaarah 7ukmiyyah

Tahaarah 7ukmi is removing like “spiritual” impurities, that’s why wudhu ghusl and tayammum all fallz under that category.

2: Purification from khabath

And it is known as “Tahaarah 7aqeeqiyyah

Tahaarah 7aqeeqi is removing the actual impurities.

As for purification from 7adath then it is of three types:

1: Wudhu
2: Ghusl
3: Tayammum

As for Wudhu, it will be explained in a few places, which is: the explanation of its arkaan (english doesn’t have a word for rukn, the only word it has is ‘pillars’), and the explanation of the conditions (shuroot) of its arkaan, and the explanation of its sunnats, and the explanation of its ettiquettes, and the explanation of its nullifiers.

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