Taking oaths on things besides Allah
Is it true that you cant take oaths on things besides Allah? I see people taking oaths on their parents and things, is this not permissible?
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem.
Alhamdulillaahi was salaatu was salaamu `alaa Rasoolillaahi wa `alaa aalihi wa sahbihi wa man waalaahu, wa ba`d:
It is haraam to take an oath by anyone or anything besides Allaah.
Rasoolullaah Sallallaahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam said: “Know that Allaah has forbidden you to take oaths by your fathers, so whoever takes an oath, then let him take an oath by Allaah, otherwise let him keep silent.” – Authentic, from Saheeh Al-Bukhaari [i]
Rasoolullaah Sallallaahu `Alayhi Wa Sallam has also said: “Whoever takes an oath by something other than Allaah has committed Shirk (polytheism).” – Authentic, from Abu Daawood [ii]
The actions of people are not a proof in the Sharee`ah, so all these oaths people have like: “I take an oath by the light”, “I swear on my mother”, “By my father’s grave” etc, these are all haraam methods of taking oaths.
When a person needs to take an oath, then he should take an oath by Allaah, His Names and Attributes, and avoid everyone and everything else, because regardless of its high status it will not be permissible to take an oath by it.
In fact Imaam Ibn `Aabideen Rahimahullaah mentions in Raddul Muhtaar: “It is not considered to be an oath when it is taken by other than Him Ta`aalaa, i.e. by other than His Names and Attributes, even if it’s in an ambiguous way as has been mentioned, rather it’s haraam (to do so) as Al-Quhustaani said, in fact kufr is feared for such a person when he takes oaths like “by my life” and “by your life”. [iii]
And Allaah knows best.
Ubaidullah Ibn Adam Aal-Ebrahim.
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Rashid Ahmed Moosagie.
Tuesday 12th Rabee` Al-Awwal 1435 – 14th January 2014.
[i]عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، أَنَّهُ أَدْرَكَ عُمَرَ بْنَ الخَطَّابِ فِي رَكْبٍ وَهُوَ يَحْلِفُ بِأَبِيهِ، فَنَادَاهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «أَلاَ، إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَنْهَاكُمْ أَنْ تَحْلِفُوا بِآبَائِكُمْ، فَمَنْ كَانَ حَالِفًا فَلْيَحْلِفْ بِاللَّهِ، وَإِلَّا فَلْيَصْمُتْ». – رواه الإمام البخاري رحمه الله في صحيحه.
[ii]سَمِعَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ، رَجُلًا يَحْلِفُ: لَا وَالْكَعْبَةِ، فَقَالَ لَهُ ابْنُ عُمَرَ: إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «مَنْ حَلَفَ بِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ أَشْرَكَ». – رواه الإمام أبو داود رحمه الله في سننه.