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Archive for November, 2009

Is it permissible for a woman to slaughter an animal, and can the meat of an animal she slaughters be eaten?

 

My wife asked me an interesting question: Did any of the sahabiyyat ever slaughter an animal during the `eid? Is this a proof that women can slaughter an animal if indeed any of the sahabiyyat slaughtered?

 

Praise be to Allaah.

 

The scholars of Islam are agreed that it is permissible to eat the meat of an animal slaughtered by a woman, because of the general terms used in the wording of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. Among the evidence that it is permissible are the following:

 

The aayah in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Forbidden for you (for food) are: al-maytatah (dead animals – cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and the meat of that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allaah, or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allaah’s Name has mot been mentioned while slaughtering, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns – and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal – unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death)…” [al-Maa’idah 5:3]. The evidence in this aayah is the phrase where Allaah has permitted us to eat of any animal that we are able to slaughter before it dies; this is general in application, and does not specify as to whether the person who manages to do this is a man or a woman – so it could be either.

 

Al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported in his Saheeh from ‘Ubayd-Allaah from Naafi’, that he (Naafi’) heard Ibn Ka’b ibn Maalik narrating from his father that they used to have sheep which they allowed to graze on the mountain of Sala’ in Madeenah: one of the slave-women noticed that one of the sheep was dying, so she broke a stone and slaughtered it. He said: “Do not eat it until I ask the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or I send someone to ask him. So he asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or sent someone else to ask, and he told him to eat it. ‘Ubay-Allaah said: “I liked the fact that she was a slave-woman and she managed to slaughter it.”

 

Commenting on this hadeeth, Ibn Hijr (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “This shows that it is permitted to eat meat slaughtered by a woman, whether she is free or a slave, old or young, Muslim or of the People of the Book (i.e., Jewish or Christian), in a state of purity or otherwise, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told them to eat the meat she had slaughtered and did not ask for further details.”

 

This hadeeth also answers the question about whether any of the Sahaabiyaat (female Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) slaughtered animals.

 

The discussion above also makes it clear that a woman may slaughter animals, because of the general terms used in the texts, and there is no difference in this regard between meat slaughtered as a sacrifice or meat slaughtered for regular food.

 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: “It is permitted to eat from an animal which a man or a woman slaughters Islamically before it dies, or from meat slaughtered by a woman, even if she is menstruating, because her menstruation is not in her hand. It is permissible to eat meat from an animal which a woman slaughters Islamically before it dies, by the consensus of the Muslims.” (Al-Fataawa, 35/234).

 

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Imaam Shafi’ee (R.A) was a great scholar of his time. He acquired a great amount of knowledge at a very tender age. Imaam Sahib (R.A) was highly ranked for his knowledge and understanding of jurisprudence.

He held teachings which due to their great effect, people from afar would come to attend. Imaam Sahib (R.A) respected and honoured his pupils with utmost kindness.

Imaam Sahib (R.A) did not commit himself to worldly affairs and was very intimate. He himself is the author of many momentous kitaabs, which due to their usefulness are read widely amongst people.

GENEOLOGY : Imaam Abu Abdullah Muhammed Ibn Idris Ibn Abbas Ibn Uthman Ibn Shafi’ee Ibn Saa’ib Ibn Ubayd Ibn Abd Yazeed Ibn Hashim Ibn Muttalib Ibn Abd Munaf Qurayshi Muttalibi Hashimi (R.A).

BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD : Imaam Sahib (R.A) has stated that, “I was born in 150 A.H, in a town in Syria called Gazah. When I was two years old I was brought to Makkah.”

BLESSED FORETELLING : Imaam Sahib’s (R.A) mother reports of an incident before the birth of Imaam Shafi’ee (R.A) where in her dream she sighted the Jupiter star emerging from her womb and embarking in the province of Egypt. She distinguished a radiant light emitting from this star illuminating the entire city. She questioned the wise men of the city to interpret this dream, who notified her that in the near future she was due to give birth to a learned scholar whose knowledge would be beneficial far and wide.

PRIMARY EDUCATION : In Makkah Imaam Sahib (R.A) started an elementary religious school after which he gained education in Madinah. With the training of archery and horse riding and with the knowledge of religious education, he lived in the tribe of Banu Huzayl in Makkah, and he gained a high degree of Arabic poetry. Apart from this he listened to hadith narrated by his uncle, Muhammad Ibn Shafi’ee and Muslim Ibn Khalid Zanji.

 

ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE : Imaam Sahib (R.A) states, “I was an orphan, my mother used to support me, I never even used to have enough money to pay my fees. When the teacher used to teach the children I used to listen and learn it off by heart straight away. So in the teacher’s absence I used to teach, because of this the teacher was very happy with me, so in return he agreed on teaching me free.

As it was very hard for my mother to pay for my stationary I used to choose bones, stones and palm leaves to write on. At the age of seven I knew the whole Qur’an with knowledge of its meaning and I learnt Mu’atta Imaam Maalik at the age of 10.

A SMALL REPRESENTATION OF IMAAM SHAFI’EE’S ( R.A.) TEACHERS :

 

1. Muhammed Ibn Ali Ibn Shafi’ee, Imaam Sahib’s (R.A) uncle. He narrated a hadith from Abdullah Ibn Ali Ibn Saa’ib Ibn Ubayd.

 

2. Sufyan Ibn Uyaynah Makki, Imaam Sahib’s (R.A) teacher from Makkah.

3. Imaam Maalik Ibn Anas (R.A); Imaam Shafi’ee’s oldest teacher from Madinah.

A few other teachers of Imaam Shafi’ee ( R.A.) : Muslim Ibn Khalid Zanji Haatim Ibn Ismail, Ibrahim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi Yahya, Hishaam Ibn Yusuf Sinani, Marwan Ibn Mu’aawiyah, Muhammad Ibn Ismail Dawood Ibn Abdul Rahman, Ismail Ibn Ja’far, Hisham Ibn Yusuf etc.

DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Imaam Shafi’ee ( R.A.) keenly practiced upon attributes that were praised within Ahaadeeth and Qur’an, and was a flawless exemplary character. Many incidents have been recorded manifesting these attributes:

INDEPENDENCE AND GENEROSITY: Imaam Shafi’ee (R.A) restrained himself from the rest of the world, he was independent, generous, broad-minded and very understanding.

Imaam Sahib (R.A) left the Yemeni Government and came to Makkah, he had 10,000 dinars with him. On the outskirts of the city there was an encamp, people came out to meet Imaam Sahib (R.A), amongst them there was a group of poor, needy people. He distributed the whole amount to them and after entering Makkah he asked for a loan.

Rabi’ has related that Imaam Sahib (R.A) used to give Sadaqah daily and in the Holy month of Ramadhan he used to give away clothes and large amounts of money to the poor and indigents.

INTELLIGENCE AND ELOQUENCE: Abu Ubayd has related that, “I have never seen anyone as knowledgeable and talented as Shafi’ee (R.A), and no-one as perfect as him.” Haroon Ibn Saeed Ayli states that if Imaam Sahib (R.A) wanted to prove that a stone pillar is a stick, it would be possible for him.

DESCRIPTION AND APPEARANCE: Muzani has narrated, “I have never seen anyone as handsome as Imaam Shafi’ee (R.A). The complexion of his cheeks was fair, and when he used to stroke his beard it was never more than a handful. Imaam Sahib (R.A) used to dye his hair with ‘henna’. He liked scent. Whichever pillar he used to lean against whilst teaching, the fragrance would linger onto the pillar.”

WORSHIP AND MYSTIC EXERCISE: Every night Imaam Sahib (R.A) used to complete the Qur’an, and in Ramadhan throughout the day and night he used to complete the Qur’an twice. It is stated that in Ramadhan he used to finish the Qur’an 7 times in salaah.

AGE AND DATE OF DEATH : 58 years of age: 204 A.H. in the month of Rajab on Friday, in Egypt.

BURIAL : Imaam Sahib (R.A) spent his last days in the world with Abdullah Ibnul Hakam.

The Governor of Egypt led the Janazah prayers. His two sons Abul Hasan Muhammad and Uthmaan were present for the funeral rites. Imaam Shafi’ee (R.A) who has followers all over the world was buried near Mount Mukatram.

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Dead Hearts

 
Imam Ibn ul Qayyim al Jawziyyah

AlJumuah, Vol 8 Issue 4

Dead Hearts

 

While thousands of Muslims are killed all over the world, and while tens of thousands are imprisoned and tortured for calling to the path of Allah and for enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, most Muslims remain remarkably silent and have no worry except for the material things of life. Their hearts have been filled with the love of this life and the forgetfulness of the Hereafter.

Allah says in the Qur’an: “You will indeed find them, of all people, most greedy of life, even more than those who do not believe in Resurrection. Each one of them wishes he could be given a life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from due punishment. For Allah sees well all that they do” (Al Baqarah, 2:96). Many Muslims today have become so much attached to their life that their desire is to dwell among their family, house, money and commerce. They have forgotten that matters of the Hereafter should come before matters of this life and that we must strive to follow the orders of Allah, not just those we find easy and convenient to follow. Some Muslims today claim that it is better to perform
extra prayers and extra fasting rather than enjoin the good and forbid the evil or defend the lives of weak Muslims. Such people would even blame the Muslims who strive to perform these obligations.

This is what Ibn al-Qayyim had to say about such people: ”The Shaitan has misled most people by beautifying for them the performance of certain voluntary acts of worship such as voluntary prayers and voluntary fasting while neglecting other obligatory acts of worship such as enjoining the good and eradicating the evil, to the extent that they do not even make the intention of performing them whenever they are able to. Such people are considered by the scholars to be on the bottom of the scale of religion: For the essence of our religion is to perform what Allah ordered us to do. The one who does not perform his obligations is actually worse than the one who performs sins. Anyone having some knowledge about the revelation of Allah, the guidance of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, and the life of the companions would conclude that those who are pointed at today as the most pious people are in fact the least pious. Indeed, what kind of piety is there in a person who witnesses Allah’s sanctities being violated, his religion abandoned, the Sunnah of His Messenger shunned, and yet remains still with a cold heart and a shut mouth’ Such a person is like a dumb Shaitan! In the same way the one who talks falsehood is a speaking Shaitan. Isn’t the misfortune of Islam due only to those who whenever their life and food are secure, would not care about what happens to the religion? The best among them would offer a sorry face. But if they were challenged in one of the things their heart is attached to like their money, they would spare no efforts to get it back. These people, besides deserving the anger of Allah, are afflicted with the greatest calamity without even knowing it: They have a dead heart. Indeed the more alive a person’s heart is, the stronger its anger for the sake of Allah and the more complete his support to Islam and Muslims.” (A’alaam al-Muwaqqi’een, volume 2, page 176).

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Al-`Izz Ibn `Abdus-Salam – Sultan of the `Ulama’

The Ayyoubite ruler of Egypt Najmuddin Ayyoub was known for his austere and awesome personality, despite the fact he was at the same time very decent and bashful. It is reported that even his princes would not dare to talk to him (out of awe) unless he asked them to do so.

On an “Eid” holiday the Sultan headed the grand celebrations, surrounded by his guards and many celebrities, while the princes passed to greet him with great reverence. On this awesome and glorious occasion our hero Al-‘Izz ibn Abdus-Salam remembered that there were shops publicly selling wine in that Muslim State. He confidently went up to the Sultan and addressed him, “O Ayyoub! What will your answer be to Allah when He asks you on the Day of Judgment, ‘Have I not given you the sovereignty over Egypt and you allowed intoxicant drinking?’ ” The Sultan, taken by surprise, asked, “Has this really happened?” Al-‘Izz answered, “Yes, such and such shops sell wine and other sinful things, while you are busy in the luxuries of your kingdom.” The Sultan answered, “Sir, this is not my doing. It has been there since my father’s days.”
Our hero asked,

“Are you of the people about whom the Qur’an reports to have said: “We have found our fathers on a path, and we are following them?” (A reference to the disbelievers’ typical response to their prophets).

The Sultan immediately issued a decree that the wine shops be closed.
Later, a student of our hero, Al-Baji , asked him, “How are you, Sir?” “My son,” came the answer, “I saw him (the Sultan) in that state of pomposity. So I wanted to humiliate him lest he might become vain, hence hurt himself (spiritually).” Al-Baji asked: “Were you, Sir, not afraid of him?” “By Allah, my son, I was filled with awe from Allah the Almighty so the Sultan became like a cat in my eyes.”

But who was Al-`Izz ibn ‘Abdus-Salam who dared to address a fearful and powerful king of his time?

Our hero was born in Damascus in the year 577 or 578 A.H. to a poor and obscure family. As a young man he used to live in a place provided for poor students next to the Damascus Mosque. Due to his diligence and intelligence, he reports, “I never needed to finish my study with a teacher. For as soon as I got to the middle my teacher would say to me, ‘You have digested the subject. You have no need for me, and you can depend on yourself to finish it.’ But I would not leave my teachers until I completed studying the specified course of study in that field.” His thirst for learning made him unsatisfied by the education he got from the Damascus scholars. He went to Baghdad in 597 (at the age of twenty) to learn from i ts scholars. We are told that even at the age of sixty, when our hero had already become a very well-known scholar in his own right, he would not hesitate in attending sessions conducted by some reputable Egyptian scholars in Cairo.

Naturally, our hero did not keep his learning for himself, since he actively participated in the scholarly activities of his time. He taught at Damascus schools and in Cairo as well, where in the latter he spent the last twenty years of his life in teaching and writing. At Damascus, he was involved in the prestigious activity of giving religious consultation and views, sometimes in
contradiction and defiance to officially supported ones. An example of this was our hero’s view on the Qur’an (Words of Allah), which contradicted that of the Sultan in Damascus, Al-Ashraf Musa ibn Al-‘Adil. This caused the Sultan to issue decrees that our hero stop giving religions rulings and verdicts and be confined to his house. The response of Al-‘Izz to the minister who conveyed the decree to him were expressions of gratitude to the Sultan for relieving him of that difficult task and for giving him the opportunity to be free to himself in order to concentrate more on his studies and devotions.

Both in Syria and in Egypt our hero also delivered sermons in the principal mosques. It was in the mosque of Damascus that he denounced the Sultan’s alliance and confederation with the enemies of the faithful against his own brother.

And in Damascus our hero defied the authorities by issuing a religious ruling that people should not sell arms to the crusaders, who were allies to Sultan Al-Saleh Ismail. The actions brought the wrath of the Sultan on the head of our hero who was then imprisoned.

Upon his release in 639 A.H., Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abdus-Salam went to Egypt where he was given a warm welcome by its King Najmuddin Ayyoub, and was appointed Judge, then Chief Judge and Khateeb (sermon giver) in the central mosque in Egypt.

It was in his post as Chief Judge in Egypt that our hero defied the ruling authorities in the most daring acts of his life. The first act was the public sale of the ruling Memluke princes.

History tells us that upon his appointment as Chief Judge, he noticed that the Memluke princes (who were originally purchased by Sultan Najmuddin Ayyoub with money from the public treasury) acted like free men in transactions not permitted by the law for men of their status as bondsmen.

Al-‘Izz would not validate those transactions. When they talked to him, he pointed out that they should be sold and that their price be returned to the Public Treasury, then they could be officially freed. It was only then that their transactions would be valid. Naturally, those princes and army commanders were enraged by the idea. When the Sultan heard of this encounter he remarked that that was none of the business of the chief Judge. Our hero resigned from the post and started to leave the country. But thousands of people from all spheres of the Egyptian society followed him in a huge march, which forced the Sultan to apologize to him and to ask him to return to his post. Al-Izz accepted to return to his job with the provison that the religious ruling regarding the princes be implemented.

Thus, the Sultan agreed. However, the Memluke princes were infuriated and attempted to assassinate our hero, but through the grace of Allah their leader was awestruck when he raised the sword to strike Al-‘Izz. He was mesmerized upon seeing the defenceless old man courageously facing him, and the sword dropped from his hand. The assistant leader wept and asked for forgiveness, and the auction took place (a unique auction in history where ruling Memluke princes were sold in public).

For this daring act our hero, who died in 660 A.H., will always be remembered. But that was only one of the many instances of Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abdus-Salam’s memorable contributions to the history of Islamic heroism.

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Al-Qaasim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Singing is part of falsehood. Al-Hasan (may Allah have mercy on him) said: if there is music involved in a dinner invitation (waleemah), do not accept the invitation (al-Jaami by al-Qayrawaani, p. 262-263).

Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The view of the four Imams is that all kinds of musical instruments are haraam. It was reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari and elsewhere that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that there would be among his ummah those who would allow zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments, and he said that they would be transformed into monkeys and pigs… None of the followers of the imams mentioned any dispute concerning the matter of music. (al-Majmoo’, 11/576).

Al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The four madhhabs are agreed that all musical instruments are haraam. (al-Saheehah, 1/145).

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The madhhab of Abu Haneefah is the strictest in this regard, and his comments are among the harshest. His companions clearly stated that it is haraam to listen to all musical instruments such as the flute and the drum, even tapping a stick. They stated that it is a sin which implies that a person is a faasiq (rebellious evil doer) whose testimony should be rejected. They went further than that and said that listening to music is fisq (rebellion, evildoing) and enjoying it is
kufr (disbelief). This is their words. They narrated in support of that a hadeeth which could not be attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). They said: he should try not to hear it if he passes by it or it is in his vicinity. Abu Yoosuf said, concerning a house from which could be heard the sound of musical instruments: Go in without their permission, because forbidding evil actions is obligatory, and if it were not
allowed to enter without permission, people could not have fulfilled the obligatory duty (of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil). (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/425).

Imam Maalik (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about playing the drum or flute, if a person happens to hear the sound and enjoy it whilst he is walking or sitting. He said: He should get up if he finds that he enjoys it, unless he is sitting down for a need or is unable to get up. If he is on the road, he should either go back or move on. (al-Jaami’ by al-Qayrawaani, 262). He (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “The only people who do things like that, in our view, are faasiqs.” (Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 14/55).

Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Among the types of earnings which are haraam by scholarly consensus are ribaa, the fee of a prostitute, anything forbidden, bribes, payment for wailing over the dead and singing, payments to fortunetellers and those who claim to know the unseen and astrologers, payments for playing flutes, and all kinds of gambling. (al-Kaafi).

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said, explaining the view of Imam al- Shaafa’i: His companions who know his madhhab (point of view) stated that it is haraam and denounced those who said that he permitted it. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/425).

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: With regard to the view of Imam Ahmad, his son ‘Abd-Allah said: I asked my father about singing. He said: Singing makes hypocrisy grow in the heart; I do not like it. Then he mentioned the words of Maalik: the evildoers (faasiqs) among us do that. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan)

Ibn Qudaamah, the researcher of the Hanbali madhhab – (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Musical instruments are of three types which are haraam. These are the strings and all kinds of flute, and the lute, drum and rabaab (stringed instrument) and so on. Whoever persists in listening to them, his testimony should be rejected. (al-Mughni, 10/173). And he said (may Allah have mercy on him); If a person is invited to a gathering in which there is something objectionable, such as wine and musical instruments, and he is able to denounce it, then he should attend and speak out against it, because then he will be combining two obligatory duties. If he is not able to do that, then he should not attend. (al-Kaafi, 3/118)

Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It is not permissible to make musical instruments. (al-Majmoo’, 22/140). And he said: According to the majority of fuqahaa’, it is permissible to destroy musical instruments, such as the tanboor [a stringed instrument similar to a mandolin]. This is the view of Maalik and is the more famous of the two views narrated from Ahmad. (al-Majmoo’, 28/113). And he said: …Ibn al-Mundhir mentioned that the scholars were agreed that it is not permissible to pay people to sing and wail… the consensus of all the scholars whose views we have learned about is that wailing and singing are not allowed. Al-Shu’bi, al-Nakha’i and Maalik regarded that as makrooh [i.e., haraam]. Abu Thawr, al-Nu’maan – Abu Haneefah (may Allah have mercy on him) – and Ya’qoob and Muhammad, two of the students of Abu Haneefah said: it is not permissible to pay anything for singing and wailing. This is our view. And he said: musical instruments are the wine of the soul, and what it does to the soul is worse than what intoxicating drinks do. (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 10/417).

Ibn Abi Shaybah (may Allah have mercy on him) reported that a man broke a mandolin belonging to another man, and the latter took his case to Shurayh (the renowned judge for his excellent judgements). But Shurayh did not award him any compensation – i.e., he did not make the first man pay the cost of the mandolin, because it was haraam and had no value. (al-Musannaf, 5/395).

Al-Baghawi (may Allah have mercy on him) stated in a fatwa that it is haraam to sell all kinds of musical instruments such as mandolins, flutes, etc. Then he said: If the images are erased and the musical instruments are altered, then it is permissible to sell their parts, whether they are silver, iron, wood or whatever. (Sharh al-Sunnah, 8/28)

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The Miracles of the Prophet
Muhammad Sallallâhu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam

By Imâm an-Nawawî rahimahullâh
From ‘Life of the Messenger’

The Messenger of Allâh possesses many manifest miracles and signs demonstrating [his veracity], reaching thousands and they are well known.

From amongst them was the Qur’ân, the manifest and clear miracle and brilliant proof, falsehood cannot approach it from before it or behind it. It is a revelation from One Who is All-Wise and Praiseworthy. It incapacitated the most eloquent of people in the most eloquent of times to produce a single chapter than would be comparable to it, even if the whole of creation were to gather for that purpose. Allâh, the Exalted says,

“Say: if the whole of mankind and the jinn gathered in order to produce the like of this Qur’ân, they could not produce the like of it, even if they assisted each other.” [Al-Isrâ’ (17):88]
It challenged them to this despite their large numbers, their eloquence and their severe enmity, and it challenges them to this day.

As for the other miracles, it is not possible to enumerate them all due to their huge number and renewing and increasing nature. I will mention some examples:

The splitting of the moon, water flowing from between his fingers, increasing the quantity of food and water, the glorification of the food, the palm tree yearning for him, stones greeting him, the talking of the poisoned leg [of roasted sheep], trees walking towards him, two trees that were far apart coming together and then parting again, the barren [and therefore dry] sheep giving milk, his returning the eye of Qatâdah bin an-Nu’mân to its place with his hand after it had slipped out, his splitting lightly into the eye of ‘Alî when it had become inflamed and its being cured almost immediately, his wip ing the leg of ‘Abdullâh bin ‘Atîq whereupon he was immediately cured.

His informing of the places of death of the polytheists on the Day of Badr saying, ‘this is the place of such-and-such a person.’ His informing of his killing Ubayy ibn Khalaf, that a group of his nation would traverse an ocean and Umm Harâm would be amongst them and this occurred. That all was drawn together for him of the ends of the earth and displayed to him would be opened for his nation, that the treasures of Chosroes would be spend by his nation in the Way of Allâh, the Mighty and Magnificent. That he feared for his nation that they would be tempted by the wealth and allurement of this world

and that the treasures of the Persians and Romans would be ours and that Surâqah bin Mâlik would wear the trousers of Chosroes.

He informed us that Hasan bin ‘Alî would reconcile between two large warring parties of Muslims, that Sa’d bin Abû Waqqâs would live such that nations would benefit by him and others would be harmed. That an-Najâshî had died on this particular day while he was in Ethiopia and that al-Aswad al-Ansî had been killed on this particular day while he was in Yemen.

That the Muslims would fight the Turks who were described as having small eyes, wide faces and small, chiselled noses and that Yemen, Syria and Irâq would be conquered by the Muslims.

He informed us that the Muslims would comprise three armies, an army in Syria, an army in Yemen and an army in Irâq. That they would conquer Egypt, a land whose [unit of land measurement] was the Qîrât, they they should deal with their people well for they have protection [being Copts] and ties of kinship [through Hajar]. That Awais al-Qarnî would come to you from the auxiliaries of Yemen, he would be affected with leprosy and it would be healed except for the space of a dirham, and he indeed arrived during the rule of ‘Umar.

He informed us that a group of his nation would always be upon the truth and that mankind would become many in number and that the Ansâr would diminish in number and that the Ansâr would not be given their due [with regards distribution of wealth and leadership]. That mankind would keep on asking questions until they would say, “Allâh created the creation …” [Referring to the hadîth, “the people will continue asking until they say, ‘this is Allâh who created everything … but who created Allâh?’ ” Reported by al-Bukhârî [no.7296] and Muslim [no.136]]

He informed us that Ruwayfî’ bin Thâbit would live a long life, that ‘Ammâr bin Yâsir would be killed by the transgressing group, that this nation shall divide into sects and that they would fight each other.

He informed us that a fire would emanate from the land of Hijâz and the likes of this. All of this occurred exactly as he, sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said it would.

He said to Thâbit bin Qays,

“You will live being praised … and you will die as a martyr.”

and he lived being praised and was martyred at al-Yamâmah. He said about ‘Uthmân,

“He would afflicted by a severe trial.” [The meaning of severe trial is his being imprisoned in his house and his being killed by transgressors.]

He said about a person amongst the Muslims who had just fought a severe fight that,

“He would be from amongst the denizens of the Fire.”

and later he committed suicide. Wâbisah bin Ma’bad came to him in order to ask him about righteousness and sin upon which he asked,

“Have you come to ask about righteousness and sin?”

He said to ‘Alî, az-Zubair and al-Miqdâd,

“Go to the garden of Khâkh for indeed there is Dha’înah* who has a book with her.”

They found her there but she initially denied having the book and then took it our from within her braids.

He said to Abû Hurayrah, when Satan had stolen some dates, “indeed he shall return … ” and he did.

He said to his wives, “The most prolific of you in giving charity will be the quickest of you to join me,” and it was so. [Zaynab bint Jahsh radiallâhu ‘anhâ was the most prolific of them in giving charity and was the first to die. Refer to Muslim [no.2452].]

He said to ‘Abdullâh bin Sallâm, “You will remain upon Islâm until you die.”

He supplicated for Anas that his wealth and sons increase and that he should live a long life and it was so. He lived for more than one hundred years and not one of the Ansâr was richer than he and one hundred and twenty of his children had been buried before the arrival of al-Hajjâj [to Basrah]. This is detailed further in Sahîh al-Bukhârî [no.1982] and others.

He sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated that Islâm be strengthened through ‘Umar bin al-Khattab or Abû Jahl, and Allâh strengthened it through ‘Umar radiallâhu ‘anhu. He supplicated against Surâqah bin Mâlik and the feet of his horse sank into the earth and he was thrown off, he called out asking for safe conduct and was granted it, then he asked the Prophet to make a supplication for him.

He supplicated that Allâh remove feeling the bitter cold and heat from ‘Alî and so never did he feel cold or hot. He supplicated for Hudhayfah, the night that he sent him to spy on the Confederates, that he not feel the cold and he did not until he had returned. He supplicated for ibn ‘Abbâs that Allâh grant him understanding of the religion and it was so. He supplicated against ‘Utaybah bin Abû Lahab that Allâh cause a dog from amongst His dogs to overcome him and he was killed by a lion at az-Zarqâ’.

He sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated for the descent of rain when they asked him to at the time of drought, there was not a single cloud in the sky, then when he had supplicated, the clouds gathered like mountains and it rained until the next Friday. It rained so much they they had to come back and ask him to supplicated and stop the rain, so he supplicated and the rain stopped and they out into the glaring sun.

He supplicated for Abû Talhah and his wife, Umm Sulaym, that he bless them in the night they had spent together and she became pregnant and gave birth to ‘Adullâh. He had nine children and all of them were scholars.

He sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated for the mother of Abû Hurayrah radiallâhu ‘anhu that she be guided and Abû Hurayrah left to find her performing the ritual bath because she had accepted Islâm. He supplicated for Umm Qays bint Muhsin, the sister of ‘Ukkasha, that she live a long life and we do not know of another woman who lived as long as she did. This was reported by an-Nasâ’î in the chapter concerning washing the deceased.

On the Day of Hunain he threw a handful of dirt at the disbelievers and said, “May the faces be disfigured,” and Allâh, the Exalted, vanquished them, filling their eyes with dirt. He once went out to one hundred of the Quraysh who were waiting to do something horrible to him and he put dirt on their head and went on his way without their seeing him.

* [This is the woman with whom Hasîb al-Balta’ah radiallâhu ‘anhu sent a letter t o the people of Mecca in order to inform them of the plans of the Messenger of Allâh sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam to fight them. It was concerning this that the first verses of Sûrah Mumtahinah were revealed. The garden of Khâkh is a place falling between Mecca and Madînah. Refer to Bukhârî [no.3983] and Muslim [no.2494] and Tafsîr ibn Kathîr [4/344].]

 

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Imam Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani

The full name of the famous Imam Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani is Abul Fadl, Shihabuddin Ahmad bin ‘All bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Ai-Kinani AshShafi’i. Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani was born on 10th Sha’ban, 773 H. in Egypt, where he grew up also. He memorized the Qur’an at the age of nine years and also memorized Al-Hawi, the book Muktasar of Ibn Al-Hajib, and other books. He travelled to Malika and listened to the teaching of its ‘Ulama. While he admired the knowledge
of Hadith and began to acquire it from the great Sheikh in Hijaza, Ash Sham, Egypt and stayed with Az-Zain Al-‘Iragi for ten years. He also studied under Al-Balqini, Ibn Al-Mulaqqin and others. Many eminent Sheikh of his time approved his knowledge and allowed him to give religious verdicts and teach.

He had learned the two sources (Qur’an and Hadith) from Al-‘Izz bin Jama’a, the language from Al-Majd Al-Fairuzabadi, the Arabic from Al-‘Amari, literature and poetry from Al-Badr Al-Mushtaki and writing from a group of professors. He also recited some parts of the Qur’an in all the seven styles of recitation before At- Tanukhi.

He occupied himself with the promotion of the knowledge of Hadith, so he dwelt in its study, teaching, writing and giving Fatawa (religious verdicts). He also taught the Tafsir (interpretation of the Qur’an), the Hadith, the Fiqh (jurisprudence) and preached at many places like Al-Azhar, Jami’ ‘Amr and others. He also dictated to his students from his memory. Many highly educated people and distinguished scholars travelled to him to acquire from his vast knowledge.

Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalani authored more than 150 books —most of them being in the studies of Hadith—which flourished during his lifetime, and the kings and princes exchanged them as gifts. His book most worthy of mentioning is Fath Al-Bari – the commentary of Sahih Al-Bukhari, which he had started in the beginning of X17 H., after finishing its introductory part in 813 H., and completed the whole commentary in Rajab 842 H. After the completion of the commentary, he held a party attended by
the Muslim dignitaries and spent 500 Dinar on it. Then some kings requested for it and paid 300 Dinar.

Ibn Hajar became the Qadi of Egypt, then Al-Sham was also added to his jurisdiction which he held for more than twenty-one years. He was against holding the office of the Qadi at first, until the Sultan assigned to him a special case, then he accepted to represent Al-Bakini when he begged him very much to preside for him as Qadi Then he presided for others until he was assigned to hold the office of Chief Qadi on 12 Muharram, 827 H. He then left, but he had to took the officeleft of the Chief Gad, for seven times until he led it finally in 852 H. which is the year he died in.

As concerns his personality, Al-‘Asqalani was humble, tolerant, patient and endurant. He was also described to be hilarious, steadfast, prudent, ascetic. selfless, generous, spender in charity and a person praying and fasting voluntarily. On the other hand he was said to be used to cracking of light Jokes and telling of humorous anecdotes. He had also good manners of dealing with all the Imam whether highly or lowly placed and with all those who sat with him whether old or young.

Ibn Hajar died after the ‘Isha prayer on Saturday, 8th Dhul-Hijja 852 A.H. May Allah reward him generously.

Aameen.

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