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Archive for March, 2009

Kitaabut Tahaarah – The book of Purity

In reality this section consists of only two explanations, 1: The explanation of Tahaarah. 2: The explanation of its types.

As for the explanation of tahaarah, the linguistic meaning is “purity/cleanliness”, and the shari’ meaning is purifying and cleansing and purification, (the explanation goes on, it’s just a technical explanation but i don’t want to translate it wrongly so we’ll just skip it)

As for the explanation of its types, Tahaarah itself is of two types:

1: Purification from 7adath

And that’s known as “Tahaarah 7ukmiyyah

Tahaarah 7ukmi is removing like “spiritual” impurities, that’s why wudhu ghusl and tayammum all fallz under that category.

2: Purification from khabath

And it is known as “Tahaarah 7aqeeqiyyah

Tahaarah 7aqeeqi is removing the actual impurities.

As for purification from 7adath then it is of three types:

1: Wudhu
2: Ghusl
3: Tayammum

As for Wudhu, it will be explained in a few places, which is: the explanation of its arkaan (english doesn’t have a word for rukn, the only word it has is ‘pillars’), and the explanation of the conditions (shuroot) of its arkaan, and the explanation of its sunnats, and the explanation of its ettiquettes, and the explanation of its nullifiers.

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Assalaamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullaahi Wa Barakaatuh.

Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem.

Badaa’i us sanaa’i is a very nice hanafi fiqh kitaab, written by imaam kaasaani rahimahullaah.

Alhamdulillaahi Rabbil 3aalameen, was salaatu was salaamu 3ala ashrafil anbiyaa’i wal mursaleen, sayyidinaa muhammad wa 3ala aalihi wa as7aabihi ajma3een.

Rabbi Yassir wa laa tu3assir wa tammim bil khayr.

Allaahumma 3allimnaa maa yanfa3unaa, wanfa3naa bimaa 3allamtanaa wa zidnaa 3ilmaa.

We’ll start with the chapter of tahaarah, like how all fiqh kitaabs start, because tahaarah is a (shart) condition to perform other faraaidh (compulsory) acts like salaah etc, so we shall do that first before going on to the other chapters Inshaa Allaah.

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Scholars and Rulers

Abu Hurairah (radhi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhe wa salam) said: “Whoever lives in the dessert becomes rough; whoso follows the game becomes careless; and whoso comes to the doors of the rulers falls into fitnah (trouble); and a slave does not come nearer to the ruler, except that he becomes further from Allah.” (Musnad Ahmad, Shiekh Ahmad Shakir said its chain of narration is Saheeh)

Ibn Abbas (radhi Allahu anhu) reported that the prophet (sallallahu alayhe wa salam) said: “Whoever lives in the desert, becomes rough; whoso follows the game, becomes careless; and whoso comes to the ruler falls into fitnah.” (Nisaee, Tirmidhi, and Abu Dawood – See Saheeh al-Jam’i: 6296)

Abi al-’Awar as-Silmi (radhi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhe wa salam) said: “Beware of the doors of the ruler for they have indeed become a source of trouble and humiliation.” (Saheeh ad-Dailamee, Ibn Mundah, Ibn-’Asaaki – See as-Saheehah: 1253)

In explaining the saying of (sallallahu alayhe wa salam): “…and whoso comes to the doors of the rulers falls into fitnah”, The writer of Tuhfat ul-Ahwadhi said, with reference to the Qaadhi (judge): “…i.e. to come to him without any necessity or need, he falls into fitnah. So if he complies with what he wants, and he leaves him (i.e. the ruler leaves the judge), then he has placed his deen in danger. And if he disagree with him, then he has put his dunya (life of this world) in danger.” (Tuhfat ul-Ahwadhee: 6/533)

The scholars of the salaf were very cautious from going to the rulers for fear of fitnah, and they have spoken much about this issue. Imaam Ibn Rajab (rahimahullah) said: “Many of the salaf used to forbid from going to the kings even for the one who wished to order them to do good and prohibit them from doing evil. Amongst those who forbade this were ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul-Azeez, Ibn Mubaarak, ath-Thawri, and others from amonst the Imaams. Ibn Mubaarak said: “In our opinion, it is not enjoining good and prohibiting evil for one to go to them and order and prohibit them, rather enjoining good and prohibiting evil is related to avoiding them.” The reason for this is what is feared in regards to the fitnah by going to them, for when he is far from them, the soul suggests to the man that he should order and prohibit them, and be stern with him; when he is near to them, the soul inclines to them since the love of nobility is hidden in the soul, and therefore he flatters them, is friendly towards them, he may even be biased towards them and love them – especially if they act friendly towards him and are generous to him and he accepts that from them.” (Jaami’ Bayaan al-’Ilm wa Fadhlah: 1/178 – 179)

Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani said: “Abu Qulaabah said to me: ‘O Abu Ayyub, take three characteristics from me: Beware of the doors of the rulers, beware of the gatherings of the people of desires, and stick with the market for affluence comes from well-being.” (Jaami’ Bayaan al-’Ilm wa Fadhlah: 1/164)

Abu Haazim, one of the foremost tabi’een (people who saw the companions but not the prophet) said that the scholars used to flee from the ruler whilst he sought after them, and today they come to the doors of the ruler, whilst the ruler flees from them. (Jaami’ Bayaan al-’Ilm wa Fadhlah: 1/164)

May Allah have mercy upon the scholars of the salaf, every oppression was effaced through them, and every truthful one followed their way. Then there was the ruler who used to warn them from coming close to him, he used to hold fast to the Shariah, implement it, and rule with it in the lives of the people. Then what if they were to see the rulers of our times, those who have transgressed in the lands, created much mischief therein, exchanged the deen of the Lord of the worshippers with their limited minds, dirtied their beliefs with trivialities, and have brought the laws of the Europeans and the Romans with which to govern the Muslims in this day and age?

And what if the scholars of the Salaf saw our scholars of today (except those upon whom Allah has shown Mercy) – who have inclined to these tyrants, beautified their actions to them, made fair their murders of the Muslims, weakening their honor by issuing fataawa (legal verdicts) after fataawa to make their thrones firm, and safeguard their kingdom? How beautiful are the words of Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullah) in Al-Faou’ad when he said: “The scholars of evil sit at the doors of al-Jannah (paradise) calling the people to it with their speech, but calling to the fire with their actions; every time they speak their words to the people they rush forward whilst their actions suggest not to listen to them – for if what they had been calling to was true, they would have been the first to respond. Thus they are seemingly guides, but are in fact highway robbers.”

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Aurangzeb Alamgir

Aurangzeb Alamgir

Aurangzeb (Born 1618; Died 1707), known as Alamgir I, was the 6th ruler of the Muslim Mughal Empire in India from 1658 to 1707. He was the 3rd son of Shah Jahan (builder of the Taj Mahal). Aurangzeb was very pious and led a simple life. Strict adherence to Islamic law was the foundation of his reign. He codified and instituted Islamic law throughout the empire, compiled in Fatawa Alamgiri (33 volumes). His full name was Abu Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir. He had 2 wives, 4 sons and 1 daughter.

From 1634-1658 he was governor of several areas. During his reign many non-Muslims converted to Islam. Jizya, a nominal protection tax on non-Muslims, was reinstated. He memorized the Qur’an, and knitted caps (topis/kufyas) and wrote copies of the Qur’an and sold these. Only these proceeds were used for his burial. He died at the age of 90 and was buried in a modest open-air grave. He did not use public funds for personal expenses or extravagant projects. He left few buildings, save for the Badshahi Masjid in Lahore, once the largest outside Makkah.

He was first to implement Islamic law in a non-Muslim country. He engaged in Jihad till death expanding the empire to its greatest extent into Afghanistan, Pakistan, most of India, parts of Iran and Burma. He prohibited Hindu-inspired practices of former emperors, like lavish celebrations of the Emperor’s birthday, music, court musicians, dancers, singers and art of animate objects.

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Ten Things We Waste

1. Our Knowledge: Wasted by not taking action with it.

2. Our Actions: Wasted by committing them without sincerity.

3. Our Wealth: Wasted by using on things that will not bring us Ajr (reward from Allah). We waste our money, our status, our authority, on things which have no benefit in this life or in Aakhirah (hereafter).

4. Our Hearts: Wasted because they are empty from the love of Allah, and the feeling of longing to go to Him, and a feeling of peace and contentment. In its place, our hearts are filled with something or someone else.

5. Our Bodies: Wasted because we don’t use them in Ibaadah (worship) and service of Allah.

6. Our Love: Our emotional love is misdirected, not towards Allah, but towards something/someone else.

7. Our Time: Wasted, not used properly, to compensate for that which has passed, by doing what is righteous to make up for past deeds.

8. Our Intellect: Wasted on things that are not beneficial, that are detrimental to society and the individual, not in contemplation or reflection.

9. Our Service: Wasted in service of someone who will not bring us closer to Allah, or benefit in Dunya.

10. Our Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah): Wasted, because it does not affect us or our hearts.

Imaam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

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Portrait of the Prophets

Hishaam Umawi radhiallahu anhu and another person were sent by Abu Bakr radhiallahu anhu to invite the Byzantine (East Roman) Emperor to Islam. This incident took place:

Heraclius, the Emperor, took out pictures from a golden chest and showed them to Hishaam radhialalhu anhu. The first showed a person with large eyes, sizeable pelvic area and long neck. He had no beard, wore two locks of hair and was one of the best looking people ever created. The Emperor said this was Aadam alaihis salaam.

The next was a man with curly hair, reddish eyes, a large forehead and a striking beard. He said it was Nooh alaihis salaam.

The next picture was of an extremely fair man with beautiful eyes, a conspicuous forehead, long cheeks and a white beard. He said it was Ibrahim alaihis salaam.

The next picture Hishaam recognized as the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, who had passed away. The next showed a very tanned man, dark in complexion, with very curly hair and deep, penetrating eyes. He said it was Moosa alaihis salaam. Next to this was a picture resembling Moosa alaihis salaam except that this man`s hair was oiled, his forehead wide and his eyes slightly squint. He said this was Haroon alaihis salaam.

The next was a tanned man of average height and straight hair. He said it was Loot alaihis salaam.

The next was a fair man with reddish complexion, high-bridged nose, thin cheeks and handsome face. He said it was Is`haaq alaihis salaam. The next looked like Is`haaq alaihis salaam except he had a mole on his lip. He said this was Ya`qoob alaihis salaam.

The next showed a fair person with a high-bridged nose, handsome face which shone with radiance and humility and had a tinge of reddishness. He had perfect build. He said this was Ismail alaihis salaam. The next showed a man who resembled Aadam alaihis salaam and whose face appeared to be the sun itself. He said it was Yusuf alaihis salaam.

The next picture showed a man with thin calves, small eyes, a large belly, of average height and reddish complexion. He said this was Dawood alaihis salaam.

The following picture showed a man with long legs and a large pelvic area. He was riding a horse. He said this was Sulaiman alaihis salaam.

The final picture was of a youthful person with a pitch black beard, lot of hair, striking eyes and a handsome face. He said this was Isa alaihis salaam.

Hishaam asked Heraclius where he`d got the pictures from. He replied that they were given to Aadam alaihis salaam when he asked Allah to show him the Prophets from his progeny.

They lay in the treasures of Aadam alaihis salaam at the place where the sun sets. Zul Qarnayn took them from there and gave them to Prophet Daaniyaal alaihis salaam.

Hishaam narrated this incident to Abu Bakr radhiallahu anhu who said the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam informed the Sahaba that Christians (like Heraclius) and Jews have the description of Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wa sallam with them.

This story is narrated in Hayatus Sahabah (vol 3, pg 561-3) which quotes it from Haakim as quoted in Tafsir Ibn Kathir (vol 2, pg 251). Kanzul Ummal (vol 5, pg 322) reports it from Baihaqi and quotes from Ibn Kathir that the chain of narrators is sound. Similar narration in Dalaail pg 9

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The Evil Scholar

By: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali Rahimahullaah

Know that craving after status and position inevitably causes great harm before its attainment due to the striving necessary to attain it, and also afterwards due to the person’s strong desire to hold onto it which produces injustice, haughtiness and other evils.

Aboo Bakr al-Aajurree, who was one of the wise scholars and teachers at the start of the fourth century, wrote a treatise about the manners and the sentiments of the scholars and it is one of the best works on this topic.

One who studies it will know from it the way of the scholars of the Salaf, and will know the innovated ways contrary to their way. So he describes the evil scholar at length, from this description is that: He has become infatuated with love of this world, and with praise, honour and position with the people of this world. He uses knowledge as an adornment just as a beautiful woman adorns herself with jewelry for this world, but he does not adorn his knowledge with action upon it.

He then mentions a lengthy speech and then says, “So these characteristics and their like predominate in the heart of one who does not benefit from knowledge, so whilst he carries these attributes his soul will come to have love of status and position – so that he loves to sit with kings and the sons of this world. Then he loves to share in their opulent lifestyle, sharing their lavish attire, their comfortable transport, servants, fine clothing, delicate bedding and delicious food. He will love that people throng to his door, that his saying is listened to, and that he is obeyed – and he can only attain the latter by becoming a judge (qaadee) – so he seeks to become one.

Then he is unable to attain it except at the expense of his Religion, so he debases himself to the rulers and their helpers, serving them himself and giving them his wealth as a tribute. He remains silent when he sees their evil actions after entering their palaces and homes. Then on top of this he may praise their evil actions and declare them good due to some false interpretation in order to raise his position with them. So when he has accustomed himself to doing this over a long period of time and falsehood has taken root in him – then they appoint him to the position of judge (qaadee) and in so doing slaughter him without a knife.

[Alluding to the saying of the Prophet, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, “He who is appointed as a judge has been killed without a knife,” Reported by Ahmad, Aboo Daawood (transl. 3/1013/ no.3564) and at-Tirmidhee who declared it hasan. I say: its isnaad is saheeh.]

Then they have bestowed such a favour upon him that he is obliged and has to show his gratitude to them – so he takes great pains to make sure that he does not anger them and cause them to remove him from his position. But he has no concern about whether he angers his Lord, the Most High, so he misappropriates the wealth of orphans, widows, the poor and the needy, and wealth bequested as waqf (religious endowment) for those fighting Jihaad and the nobles of Makkah and al-Madeenah, and wealth which is supposed to be of benefit to all the Muslims – but instead he uses it to satisfy his clerk, chamberlain and servant. So he eats that which is haraam and feeds with that which is haraam and increases that which is a proof against him. So woe to the one whose knowledge causes him to have these characteristics.

Indeed this is the knowledge which the Prophet, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, sought refuge from and ordered us to seek refuge from. This is the knowledge which the Prophet, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, mentioned, saying, “Those amongst the people receiving the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection is the scholar who is not given benefit through his knowledge by Allaah.” [Reported by Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr in Jaami’ Bayaanil-`Ilm (1/162) and al-Aajurree (pp.93-94) and at-Tabaraanee in as-Sagheer (1/1831) and others and its chain of narration is very weak since it contains ‘Uthmaan ibn Miqsarn al-Burree who was accused of lying and fabrication. It is however reported as being the saying of Abud-Dardaa only, with an authentic chain of narration. It is reported by ad-Daarimee (1/82) and others.]

He, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, used to say, Allaahumma innee a`oodhubika minal arba`i, min `ilmin laa yanfa`u, wa min qalbin laa yakhsha`u, wa min nafsin laa tashba`u, wa min du`aain laa yusma`u

“O Allaah, I seek Your refuge from knowledge which does not benefit; from a heart which does not fear; from a soul which is never satisfied; and from a supplication which is not heard.” [Reported by Ahmad, Aboo Daawood (transl. vol. 1/p.401/no. 1543) and others, all with the wording, “O Allaah I seek Your refuge from four: from knowledge which does not benefit” The hadeeth was declared saheeh by al-Haakim and adh-Dhahabee agreed, and it has supports from a number of the Companions.]

And he, sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam, used to say, Allahumma innee as’aluka `ilman naafi`an, wa a`oodhubika min `ilmin laa yanfa`u

“O Allaah, I ask you for beneficial knowledge, and I seek Your refuge from knowledge which does not benefit.” [Reported with this wording by Al-Aajurree (p.134) and Ibn Hibbaan (no.2426). It is also reported by Ibn Maajah (no.3483) and Ibn `Abdul-Barr (1/162) with the wording, “Ask Allaah for beneficial knowledge and seek Allaah’s refuge from knowledge which does not benefit.” Its chain of narration is hasan (good) and there is a similar narration from Umm Salamah reported by Ibn Maajah and others.]

That was said by Imaam Aboo Bakr Al-Aajurree, rahimahullaahu ta`aala, who lived at the end of the fourth century (he died, in the year 360H) and corruption increased and multiplied greatly since his time – and there is no might and no strength except by Allaah’s will.

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